Romania is strongly committed to the efforts of strengthening nuclear security and reducing the continuing threat of nuclear terrorism.
Ensuring the highest possible standards of nuclear security lies at the core of Romania’s nuclear energy policy.
Therefore, since the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, Romania has continued to resolutely implement its nuclear security commitments, and to contribute to the efforts of building up the global nuclear security architecture through the following main actions:
A. Supporting Multilateral Instruments
Romania is a State Party to the following multilateral instruments which promote nuclear security: the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and its Amendment; the International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSTANT); the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Romania encourages all States that have not yet done so to become party to the CPPNM, to ratify its Amendment, and to sing and ratify CTBT.
Romania is actively involved in the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT), subscribing to the commitment to detect, prevent and respond effectively to acts of nuclear terrorism by carrying multilateral activities aimed at improving interoperability among participating States. Romanian experts take part regularly in the activities of two specific GICNT working groups, namely, Nuclear Detection Working Group – NDWG and Nuclear Forensics Working Group – NFWG.
B. Strengthening national legislation
Romania has in place the necessary regulatory framework and has the capacity to ensure a proper management of nuclear materials, including preventing terrorists from acquiring such materials.
In 2014, Romania updated its National Strategy for Nuclear Safety and Security, which was approved by Governmental Decision in July 2014, with the objective of strengthening national legislation framework on nuclear security.
C. Collaborating with International Organizations
Romania recognizes the leading role of IAEA, fully supports the IAEA’s nuclear security programme and commends the Agency for its tireless efforts to strengthen international cooperation and improve nuclear security worldwide.
Romania reiterates its readiness to engage in international cooperation projects, to share its experience in the field of nuclear security and safety and to offer relevant expertise in this field.
The national regulatory authority in Romania (the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control - CNCAN) strictly follows the standards and guidelines issued by the IAEA. It participated in most of the relevant activities organized by the IAEA, including the International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control (July 2014), or the International Conference on Cyber Security: Discussions and exchange of information (June2015).
D. Undertaking Unilateral Commitments
In the margins of NSS 2014, Romania undertook a number of unilateral commitments, which were or are currently being implemented, namely:
i) A voluntary contribution of 30,000 Euro to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund: the payment is in the process of being made;
ii) Receiving, in 2014, an IAEA INSServ (International Nuclear Security Advisory Service) mission: The mission took place on 12-16 May 2014, and ensured an independent assessment of the national capabilities for detection and response in case of illicit trafficking, identifying means for enhancing nuclear security related activities;
iii) Inviting, in 2016, an IAEA IPPAS (International Physical Protection Advisory Service) follow-up mission to assess the stage of implementation of the recommendations presented on the occasion of the previous IPPAS mission, in 2012: Romania is in the process of officially inviting the IPPAS follow-up mission for the last quarter of 2016.
E. Securing all Nuclear Materials
Romania repatriated to the country of origin (the Russian Federation) the entire quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and low enriched uranium (LEU).
F. Controlling the Radioactive Sources
Since 2009, Romania has in place an agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on cooperation for enhancing the physical security of special nuclear materials and radioactive sources in Romania. Under this agreement, during the period 2014-2016, Romania carried out several activities, such as improving the physical protection systems at several hospitals and oncological institutes, and placing into safe storage all existing highly radioactive sources in hospitals and research institutes.
In the framework of the "Second Line of Defense" initiative, Romania continued to commission equipment, thus completing securing the Romanian north-eastern border by installing radiological detection portals at the access points for road, rail and pedestrian traffic. In 2015, detection portals for luggage and passengers were installed at Romania’s national airport, in Bucharest.
G. Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear materials
Romania is one of the countries which voluntarily report to the IAEA database on illicit trafficking of radioactive substances in the event that such developments ever occur. No high-risk events regarding illicit trafficking in dual use (civilian and military) nuclear items occurred in Romania so far. Since the launch of the IAEA database, Romania only reported some minor incidents.
During the period 2014-2016, the frequency of such recorded events was about 3 or 4 per year. They are, nevertheless, insignificant in what concerns their impact on the environment and the population.
H. Supporting the Nuclear Security Culture
Romania attaches great importance to the promotion of the nuclear security culture. The Romanian authorities contribute actively to efforts of raising awareness and improving understanding of the nuclear security culture, not only among governmental agencies, but also among individuals. As of 2016, a dedicated curricula is considered to be included in the training programme for all staff in the field of nuclear installations and law enforcement institutions.
I. Gift Baskets
Romania supports the following 2016 NSS Gift Baskets: Nuclear Security Contact Group; Activity and Cooperation to Counter Nuclear Smuggling; Strengthening the security of high activity sealed radioactive sources – HARS; Minimizing and Eliminating the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Applications; Insider Threat; Promoting Full and Universal Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540.
 On the basis of a specific cooperation agreement with IAEA, CNCAN organized, at national level, several events aiming at a better dissemination of specific aspects referring to the cyber security issues of the devices used in nuclear installations, and also to the strengthening of national, regional and international capacity for preventing, discovery and response to criminal and unauthorized acts involving nuclear and/or radioactive material, such as: National Training Course on Information and Computer Security Advanced Practices for Nuclear Security (July 2014), Black Sea Regional Meeting Nuclear Security Detection and Response: Information Exchange and Coordination (November 2014), National Training Course on Security of Radioactive Material in Transport(May 2015), National Training Course on Nuclear Security Events significance – assessment and response(April2015).