Fact Sheet: HEU Minimization Activities since March 2014


Office of the Press Secretary


For Immediate Release                         


Highly Enriched Uranium Minimization Activities since March 2014

Minimization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian applications is a priority for the Nuclear Security Summit process.  Eliminating all HEU from facilities or countries decreases the number of potential targets for terrorists, criminals, and other unauthorized actors to obtain this material.  Minimization efforts include HEU reactor conversions and shut-downs, nuclear material removals, technology substitution, and down-blending.  Each of these activities represents permanent threat reduction by preventing sensitive nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands.

Through the Nuclear Security Summit process, the international community has made considerable progress in this area.  Since the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States has supported the conversion of HEU reactors in Russia, Jamaica, China, and Kazakhstan.  The United States also confirmed the shutdown of four HEU reactors: two in Russia, one in Uzbekistan, and one in Switzerland.

Once facilities are converted and HEU is no longer required, the material can be removed.  Since March 2014, the United States removed or confirmed disposition of approximately 450 kilograms of HEU from 10 countries (Poland, Kazakhstan, Canada, Switzerland, Jamaica, Uzbekistan, Austria, Germany, Japan, and Argentina).  As a result of these efforts, three additional countries are now considered free of HEU (Switzerland, Uzbekistan, and Argentina), defined as having less than one kilogram of HEU on their territory.  In total, 29 countries plus Taiwan are now HEU-free after eliminating their HEU.

Joint Statement on Cyber Security

2016: Gift Basket on cyber security of industrial control and plant systems at nuclear facilities 

Subscribed by: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the United Nations.


The States listed above commit to ensure adequate cyber security at industrial control and plant systems at nuclear facilities.  These control systems are often used within safeguards, security, and safety systems.  Increased attention in this area will assist States, nuclear operators and the supply chain to continue to strengthen the resilience of these systems, protecting them from potential malicious attack or accidental damage.

To date, work has mainly focused on mitigating the vulnerabilities of enterprise systems used to manage information and data within nuclear facilities and supply chains.  This work needs to extend to industrial control systems.

Nuclear facilities benefit from robust safety mechanisms which have been strengthened and developed over several decades.  In addition to physical, logical, and human based controls, there has been an increase in the use of information technology to form part of the safety and security aspects of plant control systems, as well as nuclear material accountancy and control.  More information on the use of information technology and the associated threats and vulnerabilities in this context is needed to inform continuous security improvements.

The Initiative

The States listed above agree, as resources permit, to participate in two international workshops on this topic in 2016.  These workshops will enable States and their nuclear sectors to share good practice in managing risks to industrial control systems in nuclear sites, as well as examine the impact of using information technology in managing safety and security aspects of plant control systems.

These workshops will focus on areas including:

  • Threats and vulnerabilities, through considering case studies of recent incidents;
  • Potential or known incidents which can impact on control systems, through an interactive approach;
  • Technical and management challenges of managing risksto legacy systems;
  • Technical and management challenges of assuring new build nuclear and supply chains
  • Incident response and recovery.
  • Managing public/media expectation in light of an incident.

Outcomes and Next Steps

The States listed above propose to present the findings of this work at the Ministerial segment of the IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Security, in Vienna in December 2016 to contribute to IAEA efforts to increase cyber security at nuclear facilities, building on the IAEA International Conference on Computer Security in a Nuclear World held in June 2015. 

Joint Statement on Forensics in Nuclear Security

JOINT STATEMENT in the context of the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit

Forensics in Nuclear Security                                                                     

Applying science to investigate the illicit use of nuclear or other radioactive material is a crucial element of nuclear security.  Nuclear forensic science assists in determining the provenance of materials encountered out of regulatory control by focusing on the questions that would be asked by regulatory authorities or law enforcement investigators.

This gift basket records the intent of 30 countries[1] to advance nuclear forensics as a key element of effective nuclear security. This may be accomplished by incorporating nuclear forensics as an important element of a nation’s coordinated response, cultivating and sustaining expertise in the fundamental scientific disciplines; and advocating for and supporting international efforts where the implementation of both traditional and nuclear forensic capabilities may be enhanced through sharing.

The Forensics in Nuclear Security Gift Basket presented at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit raised awareness about good practices employed by practitioners, developed education and training curricula, and advanced international collaboration through a common lexicon and knowledge platform.  Continued effort is needed to strengthen and sustain national nuclear forensic capabilities through their inclusion in national response plans and communicating what nuclear forensics can provide to stakeholders.

Recognizing that practical implementation and sustainment of nuclear forensic capabilities are an enduring component of nuclear security, States that subscribe to this Joint Statement commit to one or more of the following elements: 

  • Develop and sustain expertise through actions such as cross-disciplinary training of traditional forensic and nuclear scientists, transferring knowledge to the next generation of practitioners, cultivating attractive career paths, and facilitating participation in international training including, but not limited to, those offered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG), the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), or the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). 
  • Promote employment of existing national nuclear science capabilities to support nuclear forensics.
  • Evaluate and adapt existing national response frameworks to incorporate the effective use of nuclear forensic capabilities.
  • Advance and mature nuclear forensic expertise in other countries through efforts such as providing instruction at or hosting international courses or conferences, publishing techniques in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, or serving as leaders in relevant international groups.

[1] The following countries are signatories to this Joint Statement: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, France, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Philippines, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, ROK, Thailand, UK and USA. The following organization also supports this Joint Statement: INTERPOL]

Joint Statement on Sustaining Action to Strengthen Global Nuclear Security Architecture



The Nuclear Security Summit process has led to significant achievements in nuclear security at national, regional, and global levels; but the work of building a strengthened, sustained, and comprehensive global nuclear security architecture – consisting of legal instruments, international organizations and initiatives, internationally accepted guidance, and best practices – requires continuous attention.

We need sustained action and ambition on nuclear security after the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit to address continuing and evolving nuclear security challenges, with the objectives of advancing implementation of nuclear security commitments and building a strengthened, sustainable and comprehensive global nuclear security architecture.

The Governments of Argentina, Armenia, ­­­­­Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Republic of Korea, Romania, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam, and the following international organizations: INTERPOL and United Nations, aiming to facilitate cooperation and sustain activity on nuclear security after the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit, commit to:

  • Establish a Nuclear Security Contact Group; and
  • Designate an appropriately authorized and informed senior official or officials to participate in the Contact Group.

The Contact Group is tasked with:

  • Convening annually on the margins of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and, as may be useful, in connection with other related meetings;
  • Discussing a broad range of nuclear security-related issues, including identifying emerging trends that may require more focused attention;
  • Promoting and assessing implementation of nuclear security commitments, including those made during the Nuclear Security Summit process, reflected in the four Nuclear Security Summit Communiqués, the 2010 Washington Work Plan, the 2016 Action Plans, national commitments and associated joint statements, and gift baskets;
  • Developing and maintaining linkages to nongovernmental experts and nuclear industry; and,
  • Determining any additional steps that may be appropriate to support these goals.

The Contact Group may also consider and make recommendations to their respective leaders on convening any future Nuclear Security Summits.

We welcome the participation of all countries that subscribe to the goals set out in this Joint Statement and wish to contribute to the work of the Contact Group.

National Statement: Switzerland

Nuclear Security Summit 2016

Statement by H.E. Johann N. Schneider-Ammann

President of the Swiss Confederation 


Mr. President,

Thank you for your initiative and leadership to bring us all together to strengthen nuclear security.

We all agree: nuclear terrorism remains a serious threat for our planet. Any nuclear terrorist attack would have catastrophic humanitarian consequences.

The Nuclear Security Summits have made a valuable contribution to awareness-raising and creating political momentum for action. Much has been achieved at the national and international level since 2010.

We need to acknowledge that nuclear security is part of a larger context. In Switzerland’s view, there is an obvious link between nuclear security and nuclear disarmament.  

We therefore call for further progress on nuclear disarmament and for the start of negotiations on a treaty covering fissile material used for nuclear weapons.  

We also need to be ready to meet new challenges that have a potential impact on nuclear security. Let me mention, as many colleagues already have done, the threats stemming from cyber-attacks.

Mr. President,

Switzerland is strongly committed to strengthening nuclear security as a responsible and constructive actor in international security policy.

I am pleased to announce that Switzerland has removed over 2 kilograms of highly-enriched uranium and approximately 20 kilograms of plutonium in the framework of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This is a concrete contribution to enhanced global nuclear security.

My country was among the early ones to ratify the relevant legal instruments, even before the Summit process started.

We have also adapted our nuclear security legislation in the last years to reflect our international commitments and incorporate best practices as recommended by the IAEA. We are fully committed to maintaining the highest standards and implementing the best practices possible regarding nuclear security.

Mr. President,

Our international action should focus on the following three areas:

We should strengthen adherence to the international legal instruments and aim for their universality. With ratification completed by 102 States, the entry into force of the Amendment to the CPPNM (Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material) is now imminent. This is a major achievement of the Summit process.

We should also encourage further States to ratify the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. We should work towards the universal application of the IAEA Code of Conduct (on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources). And we should use the comprehensive review of UN Security Council resolution 1540 this year to take stock of its implementation and reinforce it further.  

Second, we need to strengthen the leading and central role of the IAEA. With its 168 Member States, the Agency is well-placed to become the future hub of our activities. Nuclear security is an enduring responsibility. Our efforts have to continue after the Summit process ends. We welcome the convening of a Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Security by the Agency later this year, which will bring together both technical expertise and political leadership.

Thirdly, we need to broaden the agenda. If we want to build a truly comprehensive and effective global nuclear security regime, we also need to include nuclear material used for military purposes.

Voluntary transparency and assurance measures by the states possessing military material would help build confidence that international standards for effective nuclear security apply to all nuclear material. And all nuclear material that is no longer used for military purposes should be placed under the safeguards regime of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 

National Progress Report: Switzerland

Underlying Principles

Implementing and ensuring nuclear security is the responsibility of every State.

Switzerland is fully committed to maintaining the highest standards and implementing the best practices possible regarding nuclear security and the physical protection of nuclear and radiological material as well as of nuclear facilities on its territory.

Nuclear Security-Related International Initiatives

Support for the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

Measures pertaining to nuclear security, including transport security measures, are implemented in Switzerland in accordance with the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM).

Switzerland also ratified the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) on 15 October 2008.

Support for the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, the G8 Global Partnership and UN Security Council Resolution 1540

Switzerland participates in the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and in the G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. It is committed to the full implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 and has fulfilled its national reporting obligations in this regard. Switzerland also supports regional implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 through the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Support for Nuclear Security Summit initiatives

Switzerland supports the following Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) gift baskets in the context of the 2016 Summit: the Joint Statement on Sustaining Action to Strengthen Global Nuclear Security, the Joint Statement on Forensics in Nuclear Security, the Joint Statement on Strengthening the Security of High Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources (HASS) and the Gift Basket on Cyber Security of Industrial Control and Plant Systems at Nuclear Facilities.

Contribution to the IAEA’s Nuclear Security-Related Activities

Switzerland actively supports the IAEA’s nuclear security activities through regular participation of Swiss experts.

Switzerland actively contributes to the development of the Nuclear Security Series. This is manifested by Switzerland’s participation in the Nuclear Security Guidance Committee and as a member in the interface group.

Furthermore, Switzerland contributes with expertise in forensics and other areas to the IAEA in the interests of the global nuclear security framework and nuclear security services.

For instance, Switzerland shares information on the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials by participating in the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB).

Strengthened National Nuclear and Radiological Material Security System

Nuclear Material

By ratifying the amendment to the CPPNM on 15 October 2008, Switzerland committed to reflect in its domestic regulations the Fundamental Principles of this instrument and to adapt its legislation accordingly. This process has since been concluded.

Switzerland has strengthened and updated its legal and regulatory framework for physical protection. The new laws and ordinances that have been passed ensure compliance with the relevant international conventions, in particular with the CPPNM and its 2005 Amendment. In addition, they reflect, to the largest possible extent, the INFCIRC/225 document as revised and other recommendations contained in documents of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series.

The Swiss Federal Intelligence Service and the national authority responsible for nuclear security, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), have pooled their activities to update the design basis threat for the nuclear facilities nationwide and to complete the DBT-process.

In order to ensure an efficient implementation of its nuclear security policy, Switzerland makes use of the feedback provided by expert teams of the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) missions of the IAEA. Switzerland received an IPPAS mission in 2005 and is planning to invite another IPPAS mission by 2018. And in the field of nuclear safety and security, Switzerland also avails itself of the International Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) full scope mission including module No12 (interface nuclear safety and security).

To assess the effectiveness of the physical protection system, with a particular focus on coordination of safety and security where they overlap, and to test the interfaces between the contingency planning of the operators and the State, exercises have been conducted in Switzerland, involving all nuclear sites and all relevant state organizations.

In June 2012, the Swiss Government adopted a National Strategy for the Protection of Switzerland against Cyber Risks.

Switzerland recognizes that HEU and separated Pu require special precaution. Therefore, Switzerland is committed to reducing its stocks in these materials to a minimum level. Switzerland has removed approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium. With this removal of separated plutonium, Switzerland is now free of all separated plutonium. In addition, Switzerland has removed 2.2 kg of highly enriched uranium. With these contributions, Switzerland emphasizes its role as a global leader in nonproliferation and its strong endorsement of the international goals of consolidating and minimizing inventories of sensitive nuclear material. Switzerland is now free of category 1 material as defined by the IAEA.

Radiological Material

Switzerland applies the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, and the supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources, published by the IAEA in 2004. It has established a national register of radioactive sources for categories 1 and 2 present on its territory.

Switzerland is in a process of improving the compatibility of its legislation with the requirements of the Code of Conduct.

Nuclear Security Culture

Nuclear equipment and radioactive sources used in Switzerland in industry, the medical field, educational institutions or research institutes are subject to particular attention with regard to their security. Heads of units responsible for such equipment and the personnel using them are trained and given compulsory basic instruction in nuclear security and radioprotection. Every year, refresher courses have to be attended. Heads of units receive more extensive and specialized training.

Switzerland has participated in regional training courses on physical protection against sabotage organized by the IAEA. It supports the ongoing or planned development of Regional Training Centres, such as the one in Delft for Europe, and those in the Republic of Korea or in China for the Asian region. Switzerland would welcome the transformation of these regional centres into Centres of Excellence.

In addition, Switzerland is developing a nuclear security culture programme based on the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No 7.

Regional Cooperation

Switzerland actively promotes the basics of nuclear security at a regional level. In this context, Switzerland is a former Chair and a current member of the Troika of the European Nuclear Security Regulators Association (ENSRA). Furthermore, Switzerland provides ENSRA with a secure platform for the exchange of sensitive information regarding nuclear security.