Implementing and ensuring nuclear security is the responsibility of every State.
Switzerland is fully committed to maintaining the highest standards and implementing the best practices possible regarding nuclear security and the physical protection of nuclear and radiological material as well as of nuclear facilities on its territory.
Nuclear Security-Related International Initiatives
Support for the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
Measures pertaining to nuclear security, including transport security measures, are implemented in Switzerland in accordance with the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM).
Switzerland also ratified the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) on 15 October 2008.
Support for the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, the G8 Global Partnership and UN Security Council Resolution 1540
Switzerland participates in the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and in the G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. It is committed to the full implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 and has fulfilled its national reporting obligations in this regard. Switzerland also supports regional implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 through the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
Support for Nuclear Security Summit initiatives
Switzerland supports the following Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) gift baskets in the context of the 2016 Summit: the Joint Statement on Sustaining Action to Strengthen Global Nuclear Security, the Joint Statement on Forensics in Nuclear Security, the Joint Statement on Strengthening the Security of High Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources (HASS) and the Gift Basket on Cyber Security of Industrial Control and Plant Systems at Nuclear Facilities.
Contribution to the IAEA’s Nuclear Security-Related Activities
Switzerland actively supports the IAEA’s nuclear security activities through regular participation of Swiss experts.
Switzerland actively contributes to the development of the Nuclear Security Series. This is manifested by Switzerland’s participation in the Nuclear Security Guidance Committee and as a member in the interface group.
Furthermore, Switzerland contributes with expertise in forensics and other areas to the IAEA in the interests of the global nuclear security framework and nuclear security services.
For instance, Switzerland shares information on the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials by participating in the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB).
Strengthened National Nuclear and Radiological Material Security System
By ratifying the amendment to the CPPNM on 15 October 2008, Switzerland committed to reflect in its domestic regulations the Fundamental Principles of this instrument and to adapt its legislation accordingly. This process has since been concluded.
Switzerland has strengthened and updated its legal and regulatory framework for physical protection. The new laws and ordinances that have been passed ensure compliance with the relevant international conventions, in particular with the CPPNM and its 2005 Amendment. In addition, they reflect, to the largest possible extent, the INFCIRC/225 document as revised and other recommendations contained in documents of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series.
The Swiss Federal Intelligence Service and the national authority responsible for nuclear security, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), have pooled their activities to update the design basis threat for the nuclear facilities nationwide and to complete the DBT-process.
In order to ensure an efficient implementation of its nuclear security policy, Switzerland makes use of the feedback provided by expert teams of the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) missions of the IAEA. Switzerland received an IPPAS mission in 2005 and is planning to invite another IPPAS mission by 2018. And in the field of nuclear safety and security, Switzerland also avails itself of the International Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) full scope mission including module No12 (interface nuclear safety and security).
To assess the effectiveness of the physical protection system, with a particular focus on coordination of safety and security where they overlap, and to test the interfaces between the contingency planning of the operators and the State, exercises have been conducted in Switzerland, involving all nuclear sites and all relevant state organizations.
In June 2012, the Swiss Government adopted a National Strategy for the Protection of Switzerland against Cyber Risks.
Switzerland recognizes that HEU and separated Pu require special precaution. Therefore, Switzerland is committed to reducing its stocks in these materials to a minimum level. Switzerland has removed approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium. With this removal of separated plutonium, Switzerland is now free of all separated plutonium. In addition, Switzerland has removed 2.2 kg of highly enriched uranium. With these contributions, Switzerland emphasizes its role as a global leader in nonproliferation and its strong endorsement of the international goals of consolidating and minimizing inventories of sensitive nuclear material. Switzerland is now free of category 1 material as defined by the IAEA.
Switzerland applies the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, and the supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources, published by the IAEA in 2004. It has established a national register of radioactive sources for categories 1 and 2 present on its territory.
Switzerland is in a process of improving the compatibility of its legislation with the requirements of the Code of Conduct.
Nuclear Security Culture
Nuclear equipment and radioactive sources used in Switzerland in industry, the medical field, educational institutions or research institutes are subject to particular attention with regard to their security. Heads of units responsible for such equipment and the personnel using them are trained and given compulsory basic instruction in nuclear security and radioprotection. Every year, refresher courses have to be attended. Heads of units receive more extensive and specialized training.
Switzerland has participated in regional training courses on physical protection against sabotage organized by the IAEA. It supports the ongoing or planned development of Regional Training Centres, such as the one in Delft for Europe, and those in the Republic of Korea or in China for the Asian region. Switzerland would welcome the transformation of these regional centres into Centres of Excellence.
In addition, Switzerland is developing a nuclear security culture programme based on the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No 7.
Switzerland actively promotes the basics of nuclear security at a regional level. In this context, Switzerland is a former Chair and a current member of the Troika of the European Nuclear Security Regulators Association (ENSRA). Furthermore, Switzerland provides ENSRA with a secure platform for the exchange of sensitive information regarding nuclear security.