I. SUPPORT FOR CPPNM AND ICSANT
i) Turkey has been a party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) since 1985 and has also ratified its 2005 Amendment. The instrument of ratification was deposited with the IAEA on 8 July 2015.
Already before the ratification of the Amendment, the national regulation on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear material had been revised by taking into account its provisions.
The revised regulation, broadening the scope of physical protection measures in Turkey, governing the measures that should be taken to safeguard nuclear facilities and nuclear material from sabotage and theft during handling, use, storage or transport, was published in the Official Gazette and entered into force on 22 May 2012.
Based on lessons learned and experience accumulated during its implementation, work on new updates to this regulation is underway and is expected to be completed by the end of 2016.
ii) Turkey is among the initial signatories of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT). Already before the 2012 Seoul Summit, the Turkish Grand National Assembly had ratified ICSANT. Turkey has been party to this Convention since its instrument of ratification was deposited on 24 September 2012.
iii) An amendment has been proposed recently by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority to adapt the relevant provisions of the Turkish Penal Code in accordance with Turkey's international undertakings in this domain and in light of global developments. Interagency consultations on the draft amendment is underway.
II. STRENGTHENED NATIONAL NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL MATERIAL SECURITY SYSTEM
i) Turkey continues to update its nuclear legislation and practices in line with the IAEA's latest safety and security standards and guidance, including Nuclear Security Series documents, in particular the Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5).
ii) In accordance with the mentioned national legislation, a “Design Basis Threat” (DBT) document was prepared.
Based on the DBT document, a Physical Protection Program has been prepared for the research facilities at the Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre and the research facilities of Istanbul Technical University. The draft is currently being examined by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.
iii) Training activities concerning the inspection and physical protection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear material and accounting of nuclear material and controls are being conducted inside and outside of the facilities regularly, on a yearly basis.
iv) Turkey has also concluded both the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the IAEA. The broader conclusion obtained from the Agency in 2012, confirming that all nuclear material in the country have remained in peaceful activities, is testimony to the high standards that Turkey's system of accounting and control of nuclear material has reached.
III. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IAEA’s NUCLEAR SECURITY-RELATED ACTIVITIES
i) Turkey participates in and contributes to the work undertaken by the IAEA for the preparation or review of its “Nuclear Security Series” documents.
ii) Turkey also actively participates in the courses and technical meetings organized by the IAEA on nuclear safety.
Within this context, Turkey has contributed to technical meetings such as “Preventive and Protective Measures against Insider Threats at Nuclear Facilities”, “Enhancing Nuclear Security for Research Reactors and Associated Facilities” and “Computer Security”.
A national workshop on the “Nuclear Security Plan” was organized in Ankara on 2-6 March 2015 with the support of the Integrated Support Centre for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security, subordinate to the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency.
iii) Turkey maintains close dialogue with the IAEA on the development of the country's nuclear infrastructure. In this context, Turkey will receive International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) consultancy from the IAEA in October 2016. A preparatory meeting with the IPPAS Mission was held on 13-14 January 2016.
IV. SUPPORT FOR NUCLEAR SECURITY-RELATED INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES
i) Turkey fully supports the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 and supports the work of the 1540 Committee. Government experts from Turkey have actively participated in a number of regional and international outreach and training events on matters relevant to the implementation of the Resolution.
In line with its commitment to the implementation of the Resolution, Turkey is considering submitting an updated version of its national 1540 matrix in the coming period, to reflect partial updates in its legislation.
ii) Turkey regards multilateral counter-proliferation initiatives as important voluntary cooperative mechanisms, complementing the existing international instruments and export control regimes. Turkey contributes to the work of initiatives such as the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism and the Proliferation Security Initiative among others, on the basis of potential added value that the specific activity or Turkish participation may bring about. Based on this approach, Turkey has continued to observe, host or participate in selective activities of such initiatives in support of broader nuclear security and counter-terrorism efforts.
V. CONTRIBUTION TO MINIMIZATION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM
Having returned the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel used in the 5 MW research reactor at the Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre to the US, Turkey continues to discourage the use of HEU and plutonium and encourage the development and use of low enriched uranium alternatives.
VI. ESTABLISHMENT OF CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE AND SUPPORT
i) Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre (ANAEM) was established in August 2010 in order to conduct national and international training, including on radiation protection, radiation safety, nuclear power, nuclear safety, nuclear security and nuclear applications. ANAEM's main duty is to meet the qualified manpower needs of the industry as well as those of the public sector. ANAEM is also responsible for public information activities. Becoming an innovative and productive research and training centre meeting high international standards in this field, is also among the objectives of ANAEM.
ii) Turkey also regularly participates in the meetings of the “International Network for Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres” as an observer and supports its activities.
VII. ENHANCED EFFORTS TO COMBATING ILLICIT TRAFFICKING OF NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
i) In addition to adhering to the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, Turkey has formally notified the IAEA of its support for the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources.
ii) Turkey hosted a training course titled “Training Course on Nuclear Security Detection Architecture” which was held in Istanbul on 12-16 October 2015.
VIII. STRENGTHENED COOPERATION BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND NUCLEAR INDUSTRY
Turkey continues to work closely with its industry to identify the nuclear security requirements and to develop necessary legal and practical infrastructure for its current and future nuclear facilities, particularly in the context of its planned nuclear power plant projects.