Since the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, Malaysia has strengthened nuclear security implementation and built up the global nuclear security architecture by…
1) Strengthening Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material Security
- Malaysia has implemented the provisions of the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, as well as the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Awareness and competency programmes have been carried out to increase the level of competency among authorised users of radioactive sources in Malaysia. Malaysia also adheres to the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactor.
- Malaysia has received the International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) which reviewed the relevant Malaysian laws and regulations to determine where provisions specifically related to nuclear security issues (physical protection, sabotage, illicit trafficking, import-export, penalties) could usefully be added taking into account international legal instruments and IAEA guidelines (gap analysis).
- Malaysia is planning to host the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission from 11 – 22 April 2016, to provide an avenue to discuss new concepts and exchange best practices on the subject of physical protection of nuclear material. This will enhance Malaysia’s physical protection measures.
- Malaysia is participating in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled “Strengthening Nuclear Security at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)” with the aim to review the level of security arrangements of the relevant facilities, taking into account the threat assessment, regulatory requirements and IAEA recommendations.
- Malaysia is in the process of developing a disposal facility using the borehole technology on a cost sharing basis with the IAEA. This is to manage the Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in a safe and secure manner.
- Malaysia is preparing to build our capacity in nuclear forensics. In this regard, Malaysia plans to receive an IAEA expert mission on nuclear forensics in May 2016.
- Malaysia is organising a domestic training programme on radiological security. This includes the requirements and methods to ensure radiation protection safety and the security of radioactive materials used in nuclear application technologies.
- Malaysia is integrating nuclear security elements into the national security perspective. The planning and implementation stages are conducted by the National Security Council, the highest national security platform. All nuclear security elements are coordinated by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) based on the IAEA Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plan (INSSP), involving all identified relevant stakeholders.
- Malaysia will continue to pursue nuclear security, based on IAEA’s recommendations. Malaysia encourages other countries to utilize IAEA nuclear security framework for its comprehensive approach and for the purpose of harmonizing implementation globally. Malaysia stands ready to share experiences and best practices in the development and implementation of nuclear security capabilities through INSSP.
2) Countering Nuclear Smuggling
- Malaysia has enacted the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2015 (POTA) which is an anti-terrorism law, on 7 April 2015.
- To enhance detection capability, Malaysia, with the cooperation of IAEA, has developed a nuclear security detection laboratory, focusing on maintenance and configuration of radiation detection equipment. The lab is established under the Malaysian National Nuclear Security Support Centre (NSSC) that was approved by the government in February 2016.
- Malaysia continues to report to the IAEA on any cases of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources since joining the IAEA Database on Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources in 2001.
- Malaysia is a registered user of the International Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices (ICSRS), which provides data on sources, housing devices of the sources, and details of manufacturers and suppliers worldwide.
- Since 2004, Malaysia has invested in deploying radiation detection equipment at all points of entry and exit as well as other locations through national funding, IAEA and US cooperation. Malaysia has updated detected cases to the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) when such events occur.
- Malaysia has developed a high level strategy to counter smuggling, involving all law enforcement and border authorities under the National Security Council. Malaysia has actively conducted exercise and activities on national detection to shares experiences and best practices with IAEA and other countries.
- Malaysia acknowledges the importance of networking in enhancing effectiveness for nuclear security detection. In this regard, Malaysia has been working closely with Thailand in conducting joint table top and field exercise from 17 to 20 August 2015 at our shared borders, and has also shared these experiences with other ASEAN countries. Malaysia and Thailand will continue the exercises in 2016 (scheduled to take place from 31 October to 4 November 2016) with the cooperation of IAEA.
- Malaysia stands ready to share with all interested countries the established national systems and capabilities on nuclear security detection, which have been developed since 2004, based on IAEA nuclear security detection architecture.
3) Supporting Multilateral Instruments
- Malaysia is nearing completion of its revision of the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) that would incorporate the provisions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), and its 2005 Amendment Protocol; the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT); and the Additional Protocol to the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement.
- This comprehensive nuclear law would enable Malaysia to become a party to the various Conventions and Protocols on nuclear security, including Malaysia’s accession to the CPPNM, ratification of the ICSANT and the IAEA Additional Protocol, and adoption of various outstanding IAEA Codes of Conduct.
- Malaysia will undertake to have the comprehensive nuclear law approved by the Parliament once the revision is completed.
4) Collaborating with International Organizations
- Since 2010, Malaysia has continued to actively participate in the European Union Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Initiative (EU CBRN COE) programs, which aim to strengthen the institutional capacity of countries outside the European Union to mitigate CBRN risks.
- Under the Global Partnership Programme 2010-2018, Malaysia is also currently working to establish cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs Trade and Development of Canada (DFATD) to seek support in the form of expertise, technical advice and funding for the purpose of strengthening the safety and security of nuclear and radioactive materials.
- Since 2012, Malaysia has received assistance to enhance its physical security infrastructure through Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). Several facilities in Malaysia which use radioactive materials have been equipped with advanced security systems to detect unauthorized movement of radioactive material.
- Malaysia strongly believes in regional approaches in discussing nuclear security matters, and have successfully chaired the ASEAN Network of Regulatory Bodies on Atomic Energy (ASEANTOM) in August 2015 during Malaysia’s chairmanship of ASEAN. A revised action plan on sub regional activities that covers nuclear security activities were identified and defined.
- Malaysia reiterates the central role of IAEA in nuclear security and encourages international organizations and other countries to cooperate in nuclear security activities through the IAEA. Malaysia also extends national resources to support IAEA nuclear security series development, expert missions and training.
- Malaysia has also actively hosted technical visits to the Malaysian National NSSC since 2012 focusing on nuclear security detections.
- Malaysia will continue to cooperate with and support IAEA nuclear security programs. In this regard, Malaysia believes the overall objective of nuclear security can be met through confidence building and harmonizing implementation based on IAEA nuclear security guidelines.
5) Partnering with External Stakeholders
- Malaysia has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) on 27 April 2014. And is in the process of drawing up, the ‘Provisional Guidelines on the Operationalisation of the Proliferation Security Initiative’.
- Since 1 July 2011, Malaysia has enforced its Strategic Trade Act (STA) 2010 which is a comprehensive export control law. The enactment of the STA reflects Malaysia’s commitment to implement UNSCR 1540. The Act aims to combat the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by controlling the export, transit, trans-shipment and brokering of strategic items.
- Malaysia actively cooperates as a standing partner with the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the United States Department of Energy, in nuclear security and non-proliferation. This is done through an exchange of Letter of Intent focusing on capacity building programs.
- On CBRN issues, the Malaysian Armed Forces and the Canadian Army successfully cooperated on a planned exercise on nuclear security in February 2016. Such exercises promote networking and experience sharing while strengthening national response capability.
- At the regional level, Malaysia cooperates with the Indonesian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (BAPETEN) through a memorandum of understanding. Malaysia is in the process of finalizing a similar cooperation with the Korea Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). Malaysia through the IAEA has also initiated negotiations for cooperation on nuclear security with Sudan and Mauritania focusing on nuclear security detections.
- Malaysia strongly believes that international cooperation with other external partners are critical not only in strengthening nuclear security capabilities, but more importantly in promoting harmonized nuclear security implementation in line with IAEA nuclear security framework. In this regard, Malaysia pledges to continuously contribute to achieving nuclear security.